The revolt of Carthage’s mercenaries and oppressed Libyan subjects in 241–237 BC nearly ended her power and even existence. This ‘truceless’ war, unrivalled for its savagery, was fought over most of Punic North Africa and spread to Sardinia. It brought to power in Carthage Hamilcar Barca, father of Hannibal, whose generalship—though flawed—was critical to Carthage’s final victory. The main narrative, by the Greek historian Polybius a century later, is vividly evocative (inspiring Flaubert’s novel Salammbô) yet repeatedly unclear on military and geographical details, the extent and structure of the rebel coalition, and chronology. Truceless War analyses Polybius and other sources to present a coherent and absorbing study of the war’s causes and events, and of Polybius’ historiographical methods.