Michael J. Kruger, Ph.D. (2004) in New Testament, University of Edinburgh, is Assistant Professor of New Testament at Reformed Theological Seminary in Charlotte, North Carolina. He has published a number of articles in the area of Christian origins, and has research interest in textual criticism, apocryphal gospels, and the development of the New Testament canon.
All those interested in apocryphal gospels, the development of early Jesus tradition, ritual purity in first-century Judaism, textual criticism and palaeography, and early Jewish-Christian sects.
'In five chapters the author successively offers a most detailed codicological and papyrological analysis, presents a new edition with translation, discusses the historical problems raised by the text, and addresses the double question of its relation to the canonical Gospels and its place within early Christianity.'
Joseph Verheyden, Review of Biblical Literature, 2006
Table of contents
INTRODUCTION TO P.OXY. 840
I. History of Interpretation
A. Initial Interest (1908-1914); B. Subsequent Neglect (1914-1986); C. Occasional Attention (1986-2003); D. Summary
II. Purpose of this Study
CHAPTER ONE: THE CODICOLOGY AND PALAEOGRAPHY OF P.OXY. 840
I. The Form of P.Oxy. 840: Codex
II. The Material of P.Oxy. 840: Parchment
III. The Size of P.Oxy. 840
A. Amulets; B. Miniature Codices; C. Blau and Preuschen; D. Summary
IV. The Hand of P.Oxy. 840
V. The Punctuation of P.Oxy. 840
A. Enlarged First Letter; B. Spaces Between Sentences; C. Coloring; D. Points; E. Accents/Breathing Marks; F. Diplh; G. Diairesis; H. Summary
VI. Scribal Habits of P.Oxy. 840
A. Corrections; B. Inconsistencies
VII. Abbreviations in P.Oxy. 840
A. Nomina Sacra; B. Omitted
CHAPTER TWO: TEXT AND TRANSLATION OF P.OXY. 840
I. The Text
A. Diplomatic Text; B. Reading Text; C. English Translation
A. Line 1; B. Lines 2-3; C. Lines 3-7; D. Lines 7-12; E. Lines 12-16; F. Lines 16-21; G. Lines 21-24; H. Lines 24-30; I. Lines 30-34; J. Lines 34-41; K. Lines 41-45
CHAPTER THREE: THE HISTORICAL PROBLEMS OF P.OXY. 840
I. Pharisaic High Priest
A. Definition of arciereuj; B. The Combination of Pharisee and Chief Priest
II. Temple Layout and the "Holy Vessels"
A. agia skeuh; B. agneuthrion
III. Ceremonial Washing and the "Pool of David"
A. The Pool of David as a Miqveh; B. Dogs and Pigs in the Pool of David
IV. Restrictions on Entering the Temple
A. Immersion Before Entering the Temple; B. Dressing in White Garments; C. The Essenes; D. Foot Washing
CHAPTER FOUR: THE RELATIONSHIP OF P.OXY. 840 TO THE CANONICAL GOSPELS
I. Pericope 1 (l.1-7)
A. Textual Relationships: Vocabulary, Phraseology, Grammar; B. Literary Form/Structure; C. Origins of the Tradition
II. Pericope 2 (l.7-45)
A. Textual Relationships: Vocabulary, Phraseology, Grammar; B. Five Canonical Passages (1. Luke 11:37-52;2. Matt 23:13-22; 3. John 7:1-52; 4. John 13:10; 5. Mark 7:1-23; 6. Summary)C. Literary Form/Structure; D. Origins of the Tradition
CHAPTER FIVE: TOWARDS PLACING P.OXY. 840 WITHIN EARLY CHRISTIANITY
I. The Community of P.Oxy. 840
A. Early Heretical Groups; B. Jewish-Christian; C. Which Jewish-Christian Community?; D. Who Were the Opponents of P.Oxy. 840?; E. Summary and Conclusions
II. Comparison of P.Oxy. 840 to Analogous Apocryphal Gospels
A. Gospel of Peter; B. P. Egerton 2; C. Jewish-Christian Gospels; D. The Long Ending of Mark; E. The Pericope of the Adulterous Woman
III. Summary and Conclusions
IS P.OXY. 840 A REDACTION OF AN EARLIER APOCRYPHAL STORY?