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Concentrating on the popes and the antipopes, this book examines the perturbations of ecclesiastical reform from the mid-eleventh century to the reign of Gregory VII, pointing out what factors other than reform influenced the main personae. It demonstrates how a weak papacy reversed power with ...
This new interpretation of the reign of Calixtus II (1119-1124) challenges the conventional analysis explaining why this life-long opponent of the emperor, Henry V, agreed to compromise over imperial investitures of bishops in the Concordat of Worms of 1122.
This is the first comprehensive study in English about the medieval imperial abbey of Farfa, which played a key role in the Papal Patrimony and in the competition between the Empire and the Papacy.
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